The final balance for the 2022 budget was -$42,408.59. The deficit was due to lower membership revenue, page charge fees, and unrealized investment losses of -$27,023.74 (Other Revenue). Page charge revenues were only $25,890.00, reflecting a greater proportion of authors who chose to publish their manuscripts as Open Access. While the Open Access fees generated revenues of $70,000, these funds are paid to Elsevier. Total expenses were $20,523.35 lower than budgeted, which helped offset the shortfall in revenue. A summary of the budget is provided in the table below.